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Chinese Name:黑珍珠
English Name:Black Pearl
Chemical Composition:Calcium Carbonate, conchiolin and water
Crystal System:Amorphous | Organic
Hardness:3.5 - 4
SG:2.60–2.85
RI:1.530 - 1.685 (Birefringence: 0.155)
Related Chakra:Root
Birthstone:June
Astrological Sign: Taurus, Cancer
Locality:South Sea, Tahiti
Colour:Black
Origin:
The most important pearl-producing mollucs are saltwater oysters and freshwater mussels.

   
 
Functions:
1. Pearls are said to give the wearer a sense of calmness and centeredness.
2. Pearls represent faith, loyalty, truth and purity.
3. Pearls can especially enhance personal integrity.
4. They have also been used in a number of cultures to help women connect with their “inner goddesses” and obtain the ultimate “feminine energy.”
5. Pearls have been used throughout medical history to help treat disorders of the digestive tract, muscular systems and the skin.
6. Good for bone & improve arthritis problems.
7. Meaning of long life, good health & wealthy. Attractions to others.
   
General care:
1. Avoid contact with perfumes, hair spay, make-up.
2. Gem can be scratched easily, so wear with caution.
3. Avoid heat.
4 Do not soak in jewellery cleaner.
5. Avoid contact with household cleaners.
6. Avoid using ultrasonic and steam cleaners.
7. Storage: Avoid dry / hot storage conditions;
8. Cleaning: Clean using water and cotton wool, dry with soft cloth.
 
Classification of Pearls:
1. Natural Pearls
2. Cultured Pearls
  1.1 Saltwater
1.2 Freshwater
1.3 Blister

  2.1 Nucleated

2.2 Non-nucleated
2.3 Mabe Pearl


Classification of Pearls:
1. Natural Pearls: Pearls produced entirely by natural processes
  1.1 Saltwater
1.2 Freshwater
1.3 Blister

  Pearls that come from oysters in oceans, seas, gulfs, bays and salt lakes.   Pearls that are found in mussels in rivers, lakes or ponds and tend to be more irregular in shape and more varied in color than pearls found in saltwater oysters.   Pearls that grow attached to the inner surface of the oyster or mussel shell. When cut from the shell, one side is left flat with no pearly coating.
Water Source Oceans or Sea Water Source Lakes, Ponds or Rivers Water Source Oceans, Sea, Lakes, Ponds or Rivers
Molluscs Source Oysters Molluscs Source Mussels Molluscs Source Oysters or Mussels
Locality Source The Persian Gulf Locality Source French Locality Source All source from saltwater & freshwater pearls
The Red Sea Russia
The Gulf of Mannar China
Australia Schotland
The South Seas USA
The Philippines & Malaysian Archipelago areas  
2. Cultured Pearls: Artifically initiated and farmed. * Nearly all pearls sold today in the market are cultured pearls.
  2.1 Nucleated: Nucleation is the process which starts off the growth of a cultured or farmed pearl. It involves inserting something into a nacre-producing mollusc to trigger production of a pearl.
  There are two basic types of farmed pearls: bead nucleated and tissue nucleated.
2.2 Bead Nucleated (Saltwater or Freshwater) 2.3 Tissue Nucleated (Freshwater)
This nucleus can be a sliver of mantle tissue plus a bead or other shaped foundation.(the bead is usually made by shell) In which a nacre secreting pearl sac grows and a pearl is made within that sac.
Bead nucleated pearls include all tahitian and south sea pearls, akoya pearls and many modern big freshwater pearls (brands Edison and Ming) as well as fancy shapes such as coins or hearts.
Tissue nucleated pearls are mostly all freshwater pearls which are therefore all nacre, solid pearl. no shell bead inside.
Type of Pearl Type of Water Where Type of Water Where
Akoya Saltwater Japan Freshwater China
China
South Sea Saltwater Australia
Indonesia
Philippines
Tahitian Saltwater Tahiti
Kasumigaura Freshwater Japan
Edison Freshwater China
Ming Freshwater China
Fancy Shape Freshwater China
2.2 Non-nucleated: Typically refers to freshwater pearls whereby mantle tissue from another mollusc is inserted to stimulate pearl growth.
  Type of Pearl Type of Water Where
Biwa Freshwater Japan
Biwa Freshwater China
2.3 Mabe Pearl: A Mabe Pearl is a worked and assembled blister pearl.
To culture a mabe pearl, the farmer needs to insert a nucleus (half-spherical plastic) inside the mollusk and cement, or glue, it to the inside of the shell. After about 2-3 years of growth time, once the hemispherical nucleus is covered with a sufficient amount of nacre, it's the harvest time, the blister pearls are cut out of the shells. Their plastic nucleus is removed and the inside of the mabe pearl is washed & lacquered and then filled with a resin and then sealed with a mother of pearl backing.
  Type of Pearl Type of Water Where
Akoya Saltwater Japan
China
South Sea Saltwater Australia
Indonesia
Philippines
Tahitian Saltwater Tahiti
Haliotis Iris Saltwater New Lealand
Freshwater mollusks Freshwater China

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