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Chinese Name:次石墨 、生命之石
English Name:Shungite, Noble Shungite, Elite Shungite, Silver Shungite
Chemical Composition:Mainly Carbon, Fullerene
Crystal System:Amorphous
Hardness:3.5 - 4
SG:1.8 - 2.0
Related Chakra:Root
Locality:Karelia, Russia (near Shun'ga village)
Colour:Silver Grey to Black
Age:around 2 Billion Years Old
What is Fullerence:Three forms (or 'allotropes') of pure carbon are diamond, graphite and Buckminster Fullerene. In all three allotropes the carbon atoms are joined by strong covalent bonds but in such different arrangements that the properties of the allotropes are very different.
Fullerenes were discovered in the lab by a research group lead by Harry Kroto, Richard Smalley, and Robert Curl in 1985, for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1996.

It was the discovery of fullerene molecules within shungite in 1992 (Buseck et al.) that created the greatest stir, making shungite the only known natural rock material known to contain fullerenes.

History:The first written accounts of the attributs of shungite (then termed 'slate rock') date from the 16th century regin of Ivan the Terrible (the Grand Prince of Moscow) and document particularly pure spring water that sprang from it. During the reign of Peter the Great (1682-1725) a number of spas were establish that were deemed particularly beneficial to those with liver problems and local copper miners suffering from heavy metal posioning. Peter ordered by decree that all his soldiers must carry a piece of shungite with them, to put it in their flasks to ensure pure disinfected water.

In the 1970s, the ability of shungite to be resistant in a chemically aggressive environment, coupled with its high electrical and low thermal conductivity, was explored.

Further studies over the last 40 years have confirmed that the unusual physicochemical and structural properties of shungite give it numerous industrial and environmental applications, including the ability to remove pathogenic baceria and heavy metals from contaminated water.
Other valuable properties of shungite include its absorptional, catalytic, reduction-oxidation properties, as well as its ability to screen off electromagnetic and radio radiations, making it useful in various branches of science, industry and technology.

Origin:The origin of this ancient shungite stone is a mystery. Some say this stone may have been formed in ancient oceans,which were inhabited by a variety of microscopic organism that no longer lives in our oceans.
It is believed that when these organisms died, they broke down and became part of the sea-bed, forming these unusual rocks.Later it ended up on the land when land forms changed.

Other hypothesize that maybe it came to earth from outer space on a meteorite. (from a carbon-rich asteroid strike originating from our Solar System's own asteroid belt)

Types:The jewellery and gemstone trade, classifies shungite into three groups:
Type I (Noble / Elite Shungite)
Type II
Type III
Silver shungite with a metallic lustre, conchoidal fracture, low SG, > 98%.wt carbon. Black shungite exhibiting a dull metallic sheen when polished, containing 70-50%.wt carbon Grey shungite, with a 50-30% wt. carbon. This type is duller black-grey in colour
This is the purest and most powerful form, mostly use in its raw form commonly shaped into beads, pendants, spheres and other ornamental forms.
Usually sold powdered for topical medicinal applications or small chunks for water filtration.

 
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Functions:
1. It is touted as offering everything from radiation protection to treating infections, inflammation, allergies, high blood pressure, osteoarthritis, digestive problems, and skin conditions.
2. Shungite has been studied extensively for the treatment of depression, trauma, and all sorts of mental/emotional problems.
3. It is said to absorb and eliminate anything that is a health hazard to human life
4. Shungite is a powerful stone to shield you from the electromagnetic radiation given off by electrical equipment, including computers, mobile phones, microwaves and televisions.
5. It's a strong grounding stone.
6. Black is almost always the colour of protection in western magic.
7. Help in easing anxiety, insomnia, and even inflammation or acne.
8. It can be used to help remove negative people or bad luck from your life.
9. It purifies water and has anti-bacterial properties.
   
General care
1. Gem can be scratched easily, so wear with caution.
2. Avoid knocks.
3. Cleaning: Clean using lukewarm plain water and dry using a soft cloth.


Reference: Gems & Jewellery: Winter 2018 / Volume 27; http://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/shungite-electropollution-solution-special-report; https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/shungite.html; https://meanings.crystalsandjewelry.com/shungite/; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shungite; (Buseck et al.)
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